科研星球

论文写作中形近易混的词,擦亮眼睛仔细辨认

administer: to manage and organize the affairs of a company, an organization, a country, etc.; to give drugs, medicine, etc. to sb


administrate: 尽管某些词典有这一词条,同administer的”管理”之义,专家建议尽量不用。

The dose was administered to the child intravenously.
已给那孩子静脉注射了这一剂量。
The Internet opens up new ways of administrating the tax system.
互联网开拓了管理税收系统的一些新途径。

adverse:unfavorable; harmful
averse:strongly disliking; opposed

This drug is known to have adverse side effects.
众所周知,这种药具有不良副作用。
He was averse to any change.
他反对任何改变。

advise: (verb) to recommend
advice: (noun) recommendation

The minister advised him to leave as soon as possible.
部长建议他尽快离开。
Take my advice and stay away from him!
听我的忠告,离他远点!

affect:(verb) to influence, to have an impact on
effect:(noun) a result, a consequence; (verb) to bring about, to cause

Nicotine adversely affects the functioning of the heart and arteries.
尼古丁对心脏和动脉功能有负面影响。
The crisis had a negative effect on trade.
这次危机对贸易产生了很坏的影响。

alternate: happening or following one after the other regularly
alternative: available as another possibility

Throughout the night, people alternate between passive and active sleep.
整个晚上,人的被动和主动睡眠交替进行。
New ways to treat arthritis may provide an alternative to painkillers.
治疗关节炎的新方法可能会提供一种止痛药的替代品。

all together: all in one place; all at once
altogether: completely; on the whole

Can you put your books all together in this box?
你能把你的书都放进这个箱子里吗?
The choice of language is altogether different.
语言的选择全然不同。

artefact: artificial effect, often due to experimental error
artifact: object produced or shaped by human craft

But this does not mean China's economic miracle has been just a statistical artefact.
但是这并不意味这中国的经济奇迹是个统计数字假象。
They also repair broken religious artifacts.
他们也修补破损的宗教手工艺品。

bare: naked; not covered
bear: (verb) to carry; to put up with

The hills above the valley are bare rock.
河谷上面的山是光秃秃的岩石。
The houses bear the marks of bullet holes.
房屋带有子弹的痕迹。

beside: at the side of, next to
besides: other than

On the table beside an empty plate was a pile of books.
桌上的空碟子旁摆着一摞书。
We have lots of things in common besides music.
除了音乐,我们还有很多共通点。

born: having started life
borne: (bear的过去分词) carried

She was born in the fifties.
她是五十年代出生的。
It must be borne in mind that the victory is hard-won.
须知胜利来之不易。

cite: quote or mention
site: a place where something is located

The officials didn’t cite particular reports.
官员们没有引用特定的报道。
The site is off-limits to the general public.
这个场所不对公众开放。

classic: an excellent or defining version of something
classical: descriptions of things like the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome or the orchestral music of the 18th and 19th centuries

The book is now recognized as a classic.
这本书现在是一部公认的经典著作。
He plays classical music, as well as pop and jazz.
他演奏流行音乐和爵士乐,同时也演奏古典音乐。

complement: to add to so as to improve; an improving addition
compliment: to praise or express approval; (noun) an admiring remark

The team needs players who complement each other.
球队需要能够相互取长补短的队员。
You can do no harm by paying a woman compliments.
对女人讲恭维话不会有什么害处。

compose: to combine to form a whole
comprise: to have sb/sth as parts or members (一些保守派学者提倡禁用be comprised of,尽管某些词典承认这种用法)

Protein molecules compose all the complex working parts of living cells.
蛋白质分子构成了活细胞所有复杂的工作部件。
The collection comprises 327 paintings.
这部画册收有327幅画。

continual: ongoing but with pause or interruption, starting and stopping
continuous: ceaseless

Life was a continual struggle for them.
生活对他们来说就是不断的挣扎。
Continuous exposure to sound above 80 decibels could be harmful.
持续曝露于超过80分贝的声音可能有害。

discreet:careful not to attract attention
discrete: separate and distinct

You ought to make a few discreet enquiries before you sign anything.
你应该审慎地询问清楚再签字。
Atoms are made up of discrete particles.
原子由相互独立的粒子组成。

ensure: to make certain that something will happen
insure: to provide compensation for death or loss

The book ensured his success.
这本书保证了他的成功。
The painting is insured for $1 million.
这幅油画投了100万元的保险。

evoke: to call to mind
invoke: to mention a person, a theory, an example, etc. to support your opinions or ideas

The music evoked memories of her youth.
这乐曲勾起了她对青年时代的回忆。
She invoked several eminent scholars to back up her argument.
她援引了几位赫赫有名的学者来支持她的论点。

historic: important in history
historical: connected with the past

The area is of special historic interest.
这个地区有特别历史意义。
You must place these events in their historical context.
必须把这些事件同它们的历史环境联系起来看。

more important: (adjective phrase) what is more important
more importantly: (adverbial phrase) in a more important manner

More important, the cancer spread to the liver.
更重要的是,癌症扩散到了肝脏。
In the assessment, the leak was viewed more importantly than it should have been.
在评估中,泄漏事件被看得过于重要了。

nauseated: to feel sick to one’s stomach
nauseous: causing one to become sick

The fumes caused us to become nauseated.
这废气让我们感到恶心。
The fumes are nauseous.
这废气令人作呕。

principal: most important; the head of a school
principle: a fundamental rule or belief

The principal reason for this omission is lack of time.
跳过它的主要原因是时间不足。
There are three fundamental principles of teamwork.
团队合作有三个基本原则。


它们是不是都长得很像?就连母语是英语的作者有时都会将这些形近词弄错呢。

积累词汇有很多方法,比如定期阅读研究领域内的前沿热点文章。不过经验告诉我们,科技词汇不止会出现在科技类文章中,广泛地阅读不仅能扩展知识面,更能扩展词汇量。


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