administer: to manage and organize the affairs of a company, an organization, a country, etc.; to give drugs, medicine, etc. to sbadministrate: 尽管某些词典有这一词条，同administer的”管理”之义，专家建议尽量不用。The dose was administered to the child intravenously.The Internet opens up new ways of administrating the tax system.adverse:unfavorable; harmfulaverse:strongly disliking; opposedThis drug is known to have adverse side effects.He was averse to any change.advise: (verb) to recommendadvice: (noun) recommendationThe minister advised him to leave as soon as possible.Take my advice and stay away from him!affect:(verb) to influence, to have an impact oneffect:(noun) a result, a consequence; (verb) to bring about, to causeNicotine adversely affects the functioning of the heart and arteries.The crisis had a negative effect on trade.alternate: happening or following one after the other regularlyalternative: available as another possibilityThroughout the night, people alternate between passive and active sleep.New ways to treat arthritis may provide an alternative to painkillers.all together: all in one place; all at oncealtogether: completely; on the wholeCan you put your books all together in this box?The choice of language is altogether different.artefact: artificial effect, often due to experimental errorartifact: object produced or shaped by human craftBut this does not mean China's economic miracle has been just a statistical artefact.They also repair broken religious artifacts.bear: (verb) to carry; to put up withThe hills above the valley are bare rock.The houses bear the marks of bullet holes.beside: at the side of, next toOn the table beside an empty plate was a pile of books.We have lots of things in common besides music.born: having started lifeborne: (bear的过去分词) carriedShe was born in the fifties.It must be borne in mind that the victory is hard-won.site: a place where something is locatedThe officials didn’t cite particular reports.The site is off-limits to the general public.classic: an excellent or defining version of somethingclassical: descriptions of things like the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome or the orchestral music of the 18th and 19th centuriesThe book is now recognized as a classic.He plays classical music, as well as pop and jazz.complement: to add to so as to improve; an improving additioncompliment: to praise or express approval; (noun) an admiring remarkThe team needs players who complement each other.You can do no harm by paying a woman compliments.compose: to combine to form a wholecomprise: to have sb/sth as parts or members (一些保守派学者提倡禁用be comprised of，尽管某些词典承认这种用法)Protein molecules compose all the complex working parts of living cells.The collection comprises 327 paintings.continual: ongoing but with pause or interruption, starting and stoppingLife was a continual struggle for them.Continuous exposure to sound above 80 decibels could be harmful.discreet:careful not to attract attentiondiscrete: separate and distinctYou ought to make a few discreet enquiries before you sign anything.Atoms are made up of discrete particles.ensure: to make certain that something will happeninsure: to provide compensation for death or lossThe book ensured his success.The painting is insured for $1 million.invoke: to mention a person, a theory, an example, etc. to support your opinions or ideasThe music evoked memories of her youth.She invoked several eminent scholars to back up her argument.historic: important in historyhistorical: connected with the pastThe area is of special historic interest.You must place these events in their historical context.more important: (adjective phrase) what is more importantmore importantly: (adverbial phrase) in a more important mannerMore important, the cancer spread to the liver.In the assessment, the leak was viewed more importantly than it should have been.nauseated: to feel sick to one’s stomachnauseous: causing one to become sickThe fumes caused us to become nauseated.principal: most important; the head of a schoolprinciple: a fundamental rule or beliefThe principal reason for this omission is lack of time.There are three fundamental principles of teamwork.
“Love is a smoke raised with the fume of sighs;Being purged, a fire sparkling in lovers’ eyes;Being vex’d, a sea nourish’d with lovers’ tears;What is it else? A madness most discreet;A choking gall and a preserving sweet.”Cigarette smoke contains hundreds of different chemicals.Traffic fumes are a major source of air pollution.Many medicines are available to purge the intestines.Poorly nourished children will fail to grow.Companies try to be discreet about their projects to prevent competitors from gaining an advantage.Pumps in nuclear reactors often have a choke to regulate the water supply.Gall is a body fluid which is required to digest fat in the human intestine.Very low temperatures preserved the body of the Tyrolean ice-man.看到了吗？这就是你跟莎士比亚的差别。我指的不是词汇量。
Aliotta M. (2019). Mastering Academic Writing in the Sciences: A Step by Step Guide. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.Alley M. (2018). The Craft of Scientific Writing. 4th ed. New York: Springer.Dreyer B. (2019). Dreyer’s English: An Utterly Correct Guide to Clarity and Style. New York: Random House.[加拿大]白青云. (2012). 生命科学论文写作指南. 北京: 北京大学出版社.[英]蒂姆·斯科恩. (2014). 科技英语写作指南. 北京: 科学出版社.刘徽，科技期刊英文编辑，毕业于中国科学院大学外国语言学及应用语言学专业