科研星球

SCI写作干货:论文写作中形近易混的词总结

词汇是语言表达的基础。大学英语四级考试要求掌握4500词汇量,六级6000,专业八级13000。据统计,20岁左右的美国人平均词汇量大概有42000个。对于英语非母语的作者来说,词汇的积累可谓任重道远。


而论文写作的常用词汇中,偏偏还有一些长得很像、容易混淆的词。因为并非拼写错误,它们还常常能逃过写作软件的拼写检查。快来擦亮眼睛,仔细辨认一下吧!



administer: to manage and organize the affairs of a company, an organization, a country, etc.; to give drugs, medicine, etc. to sb

administrate: 尽管某些词典有这一词条,同administer的”管理”之义,专家建议尽量不用。

The dose was administered to the child intravenously.
已给那孩子静脉注射了这一剂量。
The Internet opens up new ways of administrating the tax system.
互联网开拓了管理税收系统的一些新途径。

adverse:unfavorable; harmful
averse:strongly disliking; opposed

This drug is known to have adverse side effects.
众所周知,这种药具有不良副作用。
He was averse to any change.
他反对任何改变。

advise: (verb) to recommend
advice: (noun) recommendation

The minister advised him to leave as soon as possible.
部长建议他尽快离开。
Take my advice and stay away from him!
听我的忠告,离他远点!

affect:(verb) to influence, to have an impact on
effect:(noun) a result, a consequence; (verb) to bring about, to cause

Nicotine adversely affects the functioning of the heart and arteries.
尼古丁对心脏和动脉功能有负面影响。
The crisis had a negative effect on trade.
这次危机对贸易产生了很坏的影响。

alternate: happening or following one after the other regularly
alternative: available as another possibility

Throughout the night, people alternate between passive and active sleep.
整个晚上,人的被动和主动睡眠交替进行。
New ways to treat arthritis may provide an alternative to painkillers.
治疗关节炎的新方法可能会提供一种止痛药的替代品。

all together: all in one place; all at once
altogether: completely; on the whole

Can you put your books all together in this box?
你能把你的书都放进这个箱子里吗?
The choice of language is altogether different.
语言的选择全然不同。

artefact: artificial effect, often due to experimental error
artifact: object produced or shaped by human craft

But this does not mean China's economic miracle has been just a statistical artefact.
但是这并不意味这中国的经济奇迹是个统计数字假象。
They also repair broken religious artifacts.
他们也修补破损的宗教手工艺品。

bare: naked; not covered
bear: (verb) to carry; to put up with

The hills above the valley are bare rock.
河谷上面的山是光秃秃的岩石。
The houses bear the marks of bullet holes.
房屋带有子弹的痕迹。

beside: at the side of, next to
besides: other than

On the table beside an empty plate was a pile of books.
桌上的空碟子旁摆着一摞书。
We have lots of things in common besides music.
除了音乐,我们还有很多共通点。

born: having started life
borne: (bear的过去分词) carried

She was born in the fifties.
她是五十年代出生的。
It must be borne in mind that the victory is hard-won.
须知胜利来之不易。

cite: quote or mention
site: a place where something is located

The officials didn’t cite particular reports.
官员们没有引用特定的报道。
The site is off-limits to the general public.
这个场所不对公众开放。

classic: an excellent or defining version of something
classical: descriptions of things like the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome or the orchestral music of the 18th and 19th centuries

The book is now recognized as a classic.
这本书现在是一部公认的经典著作。
He plays classical music, as well as pop and jazz.
他演奏流行音乐和爵士乐,同时也演奏古典音乐。

complement: to add to so as to improve; an improving addition
compliment: to praise or express approval; (noun) an admiring remark

The team needs players who complement each other.
球队需要能够相互取长补短的队员。
You can do no harm by paying a woman compliments.
对女人讲恭维话不会有什么害处。

compose: to combine to form a whole
comprise: to have sb/sth as parts or members (一些保守派学者提倡禁用be comprised of,尽管某些词典承认这种用法)

Protein molecules compose all the complex working parts of living cells.
蛋白质分子构成了活细胞所有复杂的工作部件。
The collection comprises 327 paintings.
这部画册收有327幅画。

continual: ongoing but with pause or interruption, starting and stopping
continuous: ceaseless

Life was a continual struggle for them.
生活对他们来说就是不断的挣扎。
Continuous exposure to sound above 80 decibels could be harmful.
持续曝露于超过80分贝的声音可能有害。

discreet:careful not to attract attention
discrete: separate and distinct

You ought to make a few discreet enquiries before you sign anything.
你应该审慎地询问清楚再签字。
Atoms are made up of discrete particles.
原子由相互独立的粒子组成。

ensure: to make certain that something will happen
insure: to provide compensation for death or loss

The book ensured his success.
这本书保证了他的成功。
The painting is insured for $1 million.
这幅油画投了100万元的保险。

evoke: to call to mind
invoke: to mention a person, a theory, an example, etc. to support your opinions or ideas

The music evoked memories of her youth.
这乐曲勾起了她对青年时代的回忆。
She invoked several eminent scholars to back up her argument.
她援引了几位赫赫有名的学者来支持她的论点。

historic: important in history
historical: connected with the past

The area is of special historic interest.
这个地区有特别历史意义。
You must place these events in their historical context.
必须把这些事件同它们的历史环境联系起来看。

more important: (adjective phrase) what is more important
more importantly: (adverbial phrase) in a more important manner

More important, the cancer spread to the liver.
更重要的是,癌症扩散到了肝脏。
In the assessment, the leak was viewed more importantly than it should have been.
在评估中,泄漏事件被看得过于重要了。

nauseated: to feel sick to one’s stomach
nauseous: causing one to become sick

The fumes caused us to become nauseated.
这废气让我们感到恶心。
The fumes are nauseous.
这废气令人作呕。

principal: most important; the head of a school
principle: a fundamental rule or belief

The principal reason for this omission is lack of time.
跳过它的主要原因是时间不足。
There are three fundamental principles of teamwork.
团队合作有三个基本原则。


它们是不是都长得很像?就连母语是英语的作者有时都会将这些形近词弄错呢。


积累词汇有很多方法,比如定期阅读研究领域内的前沿热点文章。不过经验告诉我们,科技词汇不止会出现在科技类文章中,广泛地阅读不仅能扩展知识面,更能扩展词汇量。

你能想象下面一段摘自莎士比亚《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的文字中出现了很多科技词汇吗?


“Love is a smoke raised with the fume of sighs;

Being purged, a fire sparkling in lovers’ eyes;
Being vex’d, a sea nourish’d with lovers’ tears;
What is it else? A madness most discreet;
choking gall and a preserving sweet.”

(小编试译:
爱是恋人轻叹升起的烟;
洗尽铅华,燃作眼中闪耀的火焰;
偶遇忧伤,散落一片泪染的海洋;
爱是什么?
爱是最审慎的癫狂;
是难以下咽的苦胆,
也是不舍吃掉的蜜糖。)

Cigarette smoke contains hundreds of different chemicals.

香烟的烟雾含有上百种不同的化学物质。

Traffic fumes are a major source of air pollution.
交通废气是大气污染的主要来源。

Many medicines are available to purge the intestines.
许多药物可以使肠胃通畅

Why do diamonds sparkle?
钻石为什么如此光彩夺目

Poorly nourished children will fail to grow.
营养不良的儿童无法正常成长。

Companies try to be discreet about their projects to prevent competitors from gaining an advantage.
企业须尽可能谨慎地实施项目以避免给对手可乘之机。

Pumps in nuclear reactors often have a choke to regulate the water supply.
核反应堆中的水泵通常设有阀门以调节供水。

Gall is a body fluid which is required to digest fat in the human intestine.
胆汁是一种分解人体肠道内脂肪的体液。

Very low temperatures preserved the body of the Tyrolean ice-man.
超低温使蒂罗尔冰人的尸体得以保存完好。

看到了吗?这就是你跟莎士比亚的差别。我指的不是词汇量。


参考资料:

Aliotta M. (2019). Mastering Academic Writing in the Sciences: A Step by Step Guide. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Alley M. (2018). The Craft of Scientific Writing. 4th ed. New York: Springer.
Dreyer B. (2019). Dreyer’s English: An Utterly Correct Guide to Clarity and Style. New York: Random House.
[加拿大]白青云. (2012). 生命科学论文写作指南. 北京: 北京大学出版社.
[英]蒂姆·斯科恩. (2014). 科技英语写作指南. 北京: 科学出版社.

作者简介:
刘徽,科技期刊英文编辑,毕业于中国科学院大学外国语言学及应用语言学专业


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