科研星球

40+SCI写作短语,帮你引出论据和例证

学术论文的写作要求所有作者仔细审查论文的信息并确保论文信息的可信度,这就进一步要求我们在论文写作过程中,必须仔细检查论文的数据,并提供详细的证据证明观点。


学术论文正文的重要组成部分之一就是支持性的论据和例证。论文里提供的论据通常需要支持作者的观点主张,否则就会让读者对论文感到困惑或怀疑。因此,如何使用恰当的、有逻辑的短语,引导读者清楚地从一个论点过渡到下一个论点是至关重要的。


在本文中,笔者会向大家分享:在哪些情况下应该使用论据和例证,以及如何使用有效的语言支持论点。



01

何时引入论据和例证


论据和例证为作者的观点奠定了坚实的基础。没有论据,论点就会缺乏可信度和说服力。没有提供任何材料或信息来证实作者的结论,这样的写作是非常糟糕的。因此,当作者介绍论点时,确保在需要的时候明智地提供证据,并使用适当和清楚的论据支持作者的论点。你应该把论点和证据联系起来,以下是论文中论据和例证的常见用处:


1.陈述非“常识”的信息;
2.根据具体数据得出结论、推断或建议;
3.用例证阐明先前的陈述;
4.一个类别下的代表性例证;
5.阐明例证和论据的条件;
6.通过阐述具体情况来强调某一观点



02

40+介绍性短语的使用及其举例


为了帮助你有效地阐明你的观点,我们根据它们的功能组织了以下介绍性短语。这个列表虽然并不是详尽无遗的,但是会给你提供一些短语类型的使用思路。


(1)陈述非“常识”的信息


常用词汇和短语:

  • [使用相关期刊投稿指南的文本引用格式]

  • As [Author] indicated/ stated/ discovered

  • According to [Author],


例句:

  • As Smith indicated in a 2010 study...

  • According to Marks and Peters...


(2)根据具体数据得出结论、推断或建议


常用词汇和短语:

  • suggests

  • as evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by

  • based on

  • can be seen/ observed when

  • as seen in

  • which is made apparent when

  • is demonstrated by/ through/ when

  • hinges on


例句:

  • The strong negative correlation suggests that...

  • As evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with...

  • Based on self-reported survey results...

  • This phenomenon can be seen/ observed when wind speeds exceed...

  • As seen in the high recurrence rates of...

  • The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers...

  • The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in...

  • This conclusion hinges on...


(3)用例证阐明先前的陈述


常用词汇和短语:

  • for example

  • for instance

  • by way of illustration

  • as an example

  • to clarify

  • to explain further

  • namely

  • to be specific

  • that is,

  • in other words,


例句:

  • This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty...

  • It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from...

  • By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculants feel prepared for...

  • As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports...

  • To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide...

  • To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger...

  • Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.

  • To be specific, bull markets can...

  • That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can...

  • In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can...


(4)一个类别下的代表性例证


常用词汇和短语:

  • for example/ instance

  • such as*

  • e.g.

  • one/ another example

  • like*

  • excluding

  • including

  • an example being


例句:

  • Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/ instance.

  • The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.

  • The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).

  • One/ another example of this exception is...

  • I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.

  • All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.

  • All stars, including our sun...

  • Hawks feast on rodents, an example being...


(5)阐明例证和论据的条件


常用词汇和短语:

  • in a similar case

  • unlike the case of

  • in the same way

  • as a case in point

  • in a typical situation

  • in a normal scenario


例句:

  • In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis...

  • Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.

  • Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.

  • As a case in point, let’s look at the situation in which...

  • In a typical situation, marsupials would...

  • In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects...


(6)通过阐述具体情况来强调某一观点


常用词汇和短语:

  • for example

  • indeed

  • in fact

  • notably

  • markedly

  • as a case in point


例句:

  • Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have...

  • Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...

  • Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have...

  • High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when...

  • Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have...

  • As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros...


03

写在最后


论文投稿以前,灵活运用上述词汇、短语进行学术写作,能够有效避免英文写作无从下手,且不需要担心查重问题。小伙伴们可以收藏起来了!



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