科研星球

跟正刊学习SCI英文写作——摘要部分的拆解

学术英文写作能力对于每一位科研从业者都至关重要。实验如鱼得水,数据丰富高大上,再配上准确清晰的英文写作,方能在学术界行走自如。而词汇是英文写作的基础,丰富的词汇量不仅能增加文章表达的多样性,更可以提高描述的准确性以及文章的可读性。

目前市面上已有各种秘籍介绍写作套路,通常都是简单罗列意思相近的词汇。为了避免生搬硬套导致的表达生硬、意思模糊等问题,笔者从正刊论文入手,通过精读拆解发表在顶级期刊上的论文,梳理学术英文写作的逻辑,同时归纳总结常见语境下的表达方式,希望能对读者英文写作有所启发和助益。



本次选取的文章是近期发表在《cell》上的“Therapy-Induced Evolution of Human Lung Cancer Revealed by Single-Cell RNA Sequencing” ,该研究利用当今最火热的单细胞测序技术,揭示了肺癌患者中的复杂的肿瘤微环境系统。本篇论文的写作言简意赅,在写作结构上具有较强的代表性和指导性。

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首先我们来学习下摘要部分:

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a) Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer mortality, exhibits heterogeneity that enables adaptability, limits therapeutic success, and remains incompletely understood.

leading cause of…的主要原因,可用the major cause替代,解释原因还可以用以下表达:
be an important/a key factor, a result of, the reason for
This is why…/A can be explained by B/ the explanation for A is B/ That helps explain…

当要表达多种原因之一时,可用以下表达:

There are myriad reasons for … . Chief among them is …
A few factors lead to/cause/contribute to…, … is (only) part of the story.

Enable 使…能够,学术写作中的高频词,类似词汇还有:
Facilitate 促进: “facilitate the development of…”
Allow 允许: “thus not allowing mutation detection for that gene”
Allow for 顾及,考虑: “Gap-junction proteins (e.g., connexins) are integral membrane proteins that allow for cytosolic exchange of ions ”

Tips:A allow B= A enables B,  A 和B有直接的因果关系
A allows for B= A使得B的发生成为可能,或者只是促进B的发生,A只是B发生的因素之一。

Empower 使能够:“The approach has the capacity to empower on-site assay and off-site centralized signal detection”
Endow赋予: “The method endows our assay great promise for quantitative detection”
Confer 给予,授予: “Different activation procedures employed to confer SERS activity”
Render 导致(因外界因素促使某人或某物达到某种状态): “Latent fingerprints require chemical or physical treatment to render them visible.”

imits therapeutic success: 限制了成功的治疗。类似表达还有:
Curb 控制,约束(limit or control sth, especially sth bad): “curb the spread of the epidemic”;
curb也可作名词:impose a curb on sth
Constrain约束,限制(侧重约束作用): “constrain continued tumor evolution toward complete drug resistance”
Hinder阻碍: “the approach is hindered by cost and time”
Impede妨碍: “impede the progress”
       
remains incompletely understood 用于表达现有研究的不足,类似表达还有:
Remain unknown/ be virtually unknown/be poorly understood/less is known
Remain a significant/daunting challenge
Be constrained by

在表达否定信息时,除了用not或者含有un-/in-/ill-等词汇,还可以有以下方法供大家灵活使用

Few/little: “littleprogress has been made towards …”
Fail to do sth:“fail to address this problem”
Have yet to do sth表示该做但是尚未做“The full effect has yet to be felt”
Lack/absence等含有否定意义的词:“the cellslacking large chromosomal aberrations“
Hardly/scarcely/rarely/seldom/barely等含有否定意义副词表“几乎不“:”detecthardly capturing details in a medical image”
Nolonger/never/none/no/nothing/nowhere/nobody等否定词
Far from/not at all/nowhere near强调”远非”:“These are decent measures,but nowhere near enough”

b)  Cancer cells surviving therapy as residual disease (RD) expressed an alveolar-regenerative cell signature suggesting a therapy-induced primitive cell-state transition, whereas those present at ontherapy progressive disease (PD) upregulated kynurenine, plasminogen, and gap-junction pathways.

suggest a therapy-induced primitive cell-state transition:
表达实验结果“证实“、”表明“、”显示“时的常见表达还有:

show/illustrate/demonstrate/found/reveal/validate/identify/uncover/calculate/measure/test/evaluate/assess等表达直接现象
indicate/imply/infer等表达深一层的含义

whereas those present at ontherapy progressive disease (PD) upregulated kynurenine, plasminogen, and gap-junction pathways. Whereas 表示对比,可与while互换,但程度上强一些。其他表达对比的方式:
In contrast (with/to后面通常接名词) “In contrast to clusters of cancer cells, immune cell-type clusters showed low patient occupancy”
By contrast相比之下:“By contrast, PD cancer cells differentially overexpressed genes associated with invasion”
Contrast with 形成对比:“Her actions contrasted sharply with her promise”
Be in marked contrast to sth 形成鲜明对比:” This new trend is in marked contrast with the trend it experienced in the 1980s”

c) This study highlights how therapy-induced adaptation of the multi-cellular ecosystem of metastatic cancer shapes clinical outcomes.

Highlight “强调”,常用于形容研究的意义,常见表达还有:
Shed light on  阐明: “These methods have shed important light on the mechanisms of PM-induced oxidative stress”
Pave the way for..为……铺路:“The discovery could pave the way for an effective malaria vaccine”
Provide new/novel insights into 提供新的见解:“they could also provide insights into the development of neurological conditions”
a better understanding of 更好的理解:“It may also lead to a better understanding of diseases of the human nervous system”

摘要的基本框架:首先介绍研究背景的重要性以及现有的挑战;其次引入解决问题的常用方法,并引入本研究涉及的策略;随后介绍本文通过什么方法获得了什么结果;最后指明本研究结果对该领域的意义。

本篇正刊摘要部分的精读拆解就总结到这里,希望可以对读者朋友摘要部分的写作有所启发,帮助读者积累一些科技论文的写作技巧以及相关领域的专业表达。


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