英文学术论文写作已经成为当下全球学术交流的必要之技能。然而，对于许多初学者来说，英文写作却是一个比较令人头疼的工作。为此，总结了一些英文学术论文写作的常用句型，仅供初学者参考。

以下从英文写作的不同部分来进行总结：

**一、起笔（Beginning）**

1. In this paper, we focus on the need for……

2. This paper proceeds as follow……

3. The structure of the paper is as follows……

4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts……

5. To begin with we will provide a brief background on the……

**二、引言（Introduction ）**

1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined……

2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections……

3. In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered……

4. Over the course of the past 30 years, .. has emerged form intuitive

5. Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world

6. The advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the

7. The development of ... is explored

8. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions

9. The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years

10. There has been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance with the advent of ...

11. A major concern in ... today is to continue to improve...

12. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.

13. At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx

14. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.

15. The pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965].

16. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.

**三、综述（Review）**

1. This review is followed by an introduction.

2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.

3. In the next section, a brief review of the .... is given.

4. In the next section, a short review of ... is given with special regard to ...

5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.

6. Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods.

7. A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xx

8. A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decade

9. A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.

10. There is considerable amount of literature on planning

11. However, these studies do not provide much attention to uncertainty in xx.

12. Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in

**四、主体部分（Body）**

1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance.

2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making logic.

3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx

4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding.

5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed in terms of fuzzy time window

6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the ...

7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ….. and also discusses how to evaluate system performance.

8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.

9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx.

10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.

11. Section 3 is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision rules

12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.

13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.

14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost variance investigation.

15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.

16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process.

17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.

18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.

19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model ..

20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.

21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.

22. Various ways of justification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.

23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model of human DM system

24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a ... scheme must satisfy.

25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is order dense.

26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions.

27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments...

**五、各章节（Sections）**

1. In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is designed are described.

2. We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.

3. The next section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.

4. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section.

5. The three components will be described in the next two section, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.

6. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following sections.

7. The next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for arguments based on xx

**六、总结（Summary）**

1. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration in section 5.

2. Section 5 summarizes the results of this investigation.

3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research.

4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper.

5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized

6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn.

7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper.

**七、摘要（Abstract）**

1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.

2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.

3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.

4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.

5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.

6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithm.

7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.

8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.

9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.

10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.

11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified.

12. The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.

13. Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.

14. This paper analyses problems in

15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by ...

16. This paper includes an illustration of the ...

17. This paper provides an overview and information useful for approaching

18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated.

19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx

20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.

21. The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of: xx, xx

22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.

23. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedure

**八、介绍文章的目标、目的（Objective / Goal / Purpose）**

1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:

2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.

3. The paper concerns the development of a xx

4. The scope of this research lies in

5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rule based decision making.

6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit ...

7. The objectives of the ... operations study are as follows:

8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of

9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide

10. The main objective of such a ... system is to

11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution.

12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements:

13. In order to take advantage of their similarity

14. more research is still required before final goal of ... can be completed

15. In this trial, the objective is to generate...

16. for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues

17. A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.

18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.

19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring

20. This illustration points out the need to specify

21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.

**九、研究方法**

1. Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.

2. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attention of system analysis.

3. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of

4. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.

5. Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.

6. The central issue in all these studies is to

7. The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.

8. Applied ... techniques to

9. Characterized the ... system as

10. Developed an algorithm to

11. Developed a system called ... which

12. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce

13. Emphasized the need to

14. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology

15. A comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken

16. Much work has been reported recently in these filed

17. Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/ Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights

18. Point out that the problem of

19. A study on ...was done / developed by [ ]

20. Previous work, such as [ ] and [ ], deal only with

21. The approach taken by [ ] is

22. The system developed by [ ] consists

23. A paper relevant to this research was published by [ ]

24. [ ]'s model requires consideration of...

25. [ ]' model draws attention to evolution in human development

26. [ ]'s model focuses on...

27. Little research has been conducted in applying ... to

28. The published information that is relevant to this research..

29. This study further shows tha

30. Their work is based on the principle of

31. More history of ... can be found in xx et al. [1979].

32. Studies have been completed to established

33. The ...studies indicated that

34. Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking.

**十、研究问题（Problem / Issue / Question）**

1. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.

2. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems

3. ... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved

4. Two major problems have yet to be addressed

5. An unanswered question

6. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.

7. An additional research issue to be tackled is ....

8. Some important issues in developing a ... system are discussed

9. The three prime issues can be summarized:

10. The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ...

11. There have been many attempts to

12. It is expected to be serious barrier to

13. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex